Monday, July 31, 2017

PT Modalities: Electric Stimulation

Electrical currents have long found to be useful to change physiological processes for many centuries.  For example: there is record in 46 A.D. use of an electric discharge from a topedo fish used to reduce pain and in the 18th century Luigi Galvani (Italian Physicist) recorded muscle contraction by touching an electric current to a frog muscle.   Use of "EStim" for pain control is on the premise of the Gate Control Theory (Melzack and Wall), however EStim is also used clinically today for muscle strengthening, wound healing and tissue repair, resolution of edema (or swelling) and even trans-dermal (skin) drug delivery.

Physiological effects of EStim are derived by depolarizing nerve membranes and creating "action potentials".  Electrical currents with enough amplitude and sufficient duration will cause an action potential, and once generated the body responds the same way it does to an action potential that is generated physiologically, with a muscle contraction.

Indications:
  1. Muscle Spasm
  2. Muscle Weakness
  3. Pain 
  4. Decreased Range of Motion
  5. Idiopathic Scoliosis
  6. Fracture
  7. Joint Effusion 
  8. Facial Neuropathy
  9. Muscle Atrophy 
  10. Open wound ulcer
  11. Bell's palsy
  12. Use with labor and delivery
  13. Stress incontinence
  14. Shoulder subluxation 
Contraindications:
  1. Cardiac Pacemaker
  2. Patient with bladder stimulator
  3. Over carotid sinus
  4. Seizure Disorders
  5. Phlebitis
  6. Malignancy
  7. Over a pregnant uterus 
  8. Cardiac Arrhythmia
  9. Osteomyelitis 

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